Usually they will not,
unless you give them reason to review their decision.
Some jobs may give you a "trial hire" period (typical 90 days).
If there is ever a question of the integrity of your resume` or job application,
they may review your application / resume` / references.
If it is discovered that there was misinformation or a lie in any of these,
expect to lose the job,
no matter how long you`ve been there.
Best advice on references:
Talk to the person(s)
you are putting down for reference before you submit them to a potential employer.
Ask them if it would be alright to be listed as a reference.
Ask them if they will give you a good reference.